S1 E6: The longbow was the machine gun of the Middle Ages. Accurate, deadly, possessing a long range and rapid rate of fire. By the 16th century, firearms replaced bows as their potential was grasped. Edward Gibbon was to claim that gunpowder effected a new revolution in the art of war and the history of mankind, a bold but not overly fantastic claim. Gunpowder weaponry first developed in China.