John Joseph Nicholson is a retired American actor and filmmaker. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest actors of the 20th century. In many of his films, he played rebels against the social structure. He received numerous accolades throughout his career which spanned over five decades, including three Academy Awards. His most known and celebrated films include Chinatown (1974), One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975), The Shining (1980), and The Departed (2006). He has also directed three films, including The Two Jakes (1990), which is a sequel to Chinatown. His twelve Academy Award nominations make him the most nominated male actor in the Academy's history. He has won the Academy Award for Best Actor twice, once for One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) and once for As Good as It Gets (1997); he also won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Terms of Endearment (1983). He is one of only three male actors to win three Academy Awards, and one of only two actors to be nominated for an Academy Award for acting in films made in every decade from the 1960s to the 2000s. He has won six Golden Globe Awards and received the Kennedy Center Honor in 2001. In 1994, he became one of the youngest actors to be awarded the American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award.